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if/when push comes to shove definition: If something can be done if push comes to shove, it can be done if the situation becomes so bad.
Table of contents
- When push comes to shove
- Original Research ARTICLE
- If push comes to shove definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary
- Original Research ARTICLE
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Create File. Am J Gastroenterol. In the UK, students often have their energy bills included as a part of a rental contract. In these circumstances, there is no monetary incentive to use energy responsibly as they pay the same amount in any case. Participants were recruited in two cities in the Midlands, UK via various university-wide mailing lists and a list of members of an energy trial conducted by a national energy company. All participants were briefed and debriefed in person. At the briefing, they received full instructions and could try out the game.
All scales were z -scored for all analyses. In addition, they were incentivized by being paid contingent on their choices in the experiment see The Game. Participants were divided into three conditions: fair, unfair, and real. Each condition included 4 groups of As only participants were recruited, two participants were lacking to form 12 full groups of However, for fair and unfair conditions, it did not matter if there was not a full group of 10 as the feedback about group behavior was pre-set.
Therefore, we assigned 39 participants for each of manipulated conditions. Thus, we manipulated the feedback about the behavior of others in 8 out of 12 groups in a between-subjects design as fair versus unfair usage. The feedback was generated to represent a plausible distribution with a mean of 3. The mean and SD was estimated based on the pilot study data. The exact feedback on each day for each condition can be found in the Supplementary Materials. To avoid deception, it was explained to participants prior to the study that some groups would receive manipulated feedback but neither experimenter nor they would know which group they were assigned to Bardsley, As the purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of fair and unfair behavior of others on individual strategies in a collective-risk dilemma, here we only report the results for fair and unfair conditions.
Participants had to imagine that they and nine other households in their virtual village were participating in a deal to purchase energy communally.
The deal lasted for a week and provided a pre-paid energy amount for the village the group of 10 households , i. Each participant received a MU endowment, of which they were deducted 28 MUs for inclusion in the pre-paid deal, leaving a remainder of 34 MUs in their private account.
Original Research ARTICLE
Excess energy use, i. The cost of any excess energy that was used had to be paid for communally, divided equally between all group members. The only way participants used energy during the game was by setting heating in their individual virtual households. The heating was set in heat points HPs that reflected a subjective energy scale from very cool 1 HP to very warm 6 HPs. HPs were introduced as opposed to degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit as people have different subjective perceptions of what warm or cold feels like.
The use of 1 HP resulted in expenditure of 1 EU.
Participants received private incentives to heat their homes: 1 HP used added 0. That meant the more energy they used, the more monetary benefits they would receive after the end of the game. Participants were told that all households in the group were similar in the level of energy efficiency and how much energy they used regularly. If the group overused, all participants had to share a fine i. Therefore, the scenario represented a social dilemma, where private interest to use as much as possible in order to gain a monetary incentive clashed with public concern to keep the use down in order to avoid a collective fine.
Participants were instructed that one round of the game lasted a week, with seven turns. One turn took place each day of the week. In the morning of each day of the study, participants received a text message or an email with a link that they had to follow to engage in the game. The link provided the following information:. Following this feedback, participants had to make one decision about temperature in their virtual house for this day.
This consisted of choosing a temperature setting from a scale ranging from very cool 1 HP to very warm 6 HP. Participants were also provided with a background story to make their hypothetical day-to-day decisions feel more real. In addition to the decisions about energy use in their virtual house, we also measured a number of psychological variables before and after participants set the temperature every day. As these variables were not the focus of this paper, we are omitting them from any further analyses or discussion.
After the first week of the study, participants participated in an extension of the game with the same group partners. Only results from the first week are reported in this paper. A complete design of the project is available from the first author. At the end of the study, participants were rewarded based on the MUs remaining in their private accounts plus the participation fee.
Participants responded on 6. The rules of the game stated that if participants missed a response on a particular day, the temperature they set for the previous day would be carried over. Only these responses were used for all further analyses.
- if push comes to shove.
- Defying the Odds;
- when push comes to shove?
Whenever we presented aggregated responses from a specific day of the study, we also excluded participants who did not provide responses on that specific day from all relevant analyses. The lower response rate on day 7 can be explained by failure of experimental software on that day.
If push comes to shove definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary
On that specific day, the reminder that went out to participants contained a link with incorrect feedback information. Most participants responded to this incorrect reminder, but we had to disregard those responses. Later in the same day, participants received a correct link with a request to respond again, however, not everybody responded to this second reminder. The response rate to the second reminder on day 7 was similar across conditions: 24 participants responded in the fair and 25 in the unfair condition.
We further checked that all our results remained the same if we ran analyses on a restricted sample of those who responded on day 7 results are presented in Tables 3 and 4. Mean use across the week was 3. As 4 HPs seemed to be a common option for many which is not surprising as it was suggested as a normative expenditure in the instructions , first we investigated whether the average behavior in the game deviated from a fair-share usage i.
Original Research ARTICLE
On average, participants in the fair condition used 3. This suggests that most people did not overuse energy to make private profits — they used a fair-share or up to 4 HPs — even though using as much as possible up to 6 HPs would be rational due to the structure of the game. Table 2. Means and SDs of energy use for each day of the week for the whole sample, fair and unfair condition. Figure 1. Average use of energy on each day of the week in fair and unfair condition. Error bars represent SE of the mean.
Furthermore, we investigated the use for the week day-by-day for fair and unfair conditions separately.